Set 2

Industrial Waste

Industrial Waste

Industrial waste is defined as waste generated by manufacturing or industrial processes. The types of industrial waste generated include cafeteria garbage, dirt and gravel, masonry and concrete, scrap metals, trash, oil, solvents, chemicals, weed grass and trees, wood and scrap lumber, and similar wastes. Industrial solid waste - which may be solid, liquid or gases held in containers - is divided into hazardous and non-hazardous waste.

Lead in Drinking Water

Lead in Drinking Water

Lead is a toxic metal found in natural deposits. It can be found in air, soil, dust, food, and water. Lead was commonly used in household plumbing materials and water service lines until 1986. The National Plumbing Code allowed lead as an acceptable material for pipes until 1975 and in solder until 1986. All provinces and territories use the National Plumbing Code as a basis for their own regulations. Regulations regarding lead used in plumbing materials were phased in across the country. Therefore, the timing of when lead service lines and other lead-based plumbing materials stopped being used may differ depending on where you live.

Legionella

Legionella

Legionellosis is a lung infection – an uncommon form of pneumonia – caused by a bacterium named Legionella pneumophila. There are two forms of legionellosis: Pontiac Fever, the less severe form, and Legionnaires’ disease, the more severe illness that is potentially fatal. 

Liquid Candy and Its Health Effects

Liquid Candy and Its Health Effects

An interesting fact to think about is that a pound of body fat equates to approximately 3500 calories. Therefore, if a person was to choose water instead of cola 24 times then they would have approximately one less pound of body fat than they would have if they had chosen cola.

Marine Dumping

Marine Dumping

Marine Dumping has been defined as the deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other matter from vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures, as well as the deliberate disposal of these vessels or platforms themselves. Marine dumping can destroy or degrade important habitats for aquatic species and cause coastal erosion and salutation, which affect the health and productivity of the marine environment.

Mining and Water Pollution

Mining and Water Pollution

While there have been improvements to mining practices in recent years, significant environmental risks remain. Negative impacts can vary from the sedimentation caused by poorly built roads during exploration through to the sediment, and disturbance of water during mine construction. Water pollution from mine waste rock and tailings may need to be managed for decades, if not centuries, after closure.

Oil Fields

Oil Fields

Many mining operators believe that technology will be able to find a solution to the extreme environmental damage that mining operations cause. This is a case of counting the chickens before they hatch, because hazardous wastes are piling up and large areas of land are being left bare, with few plants, trees and wildlife, as mining companies move to more oil-rich areas. Mining companies are quick to point out that recent efficiencies mean that less water and natural gas are required to produce each barrel of oil; industry official say that water is reused up to 17 times. Efficiencies are good, but the increase in oil production requires more water and natural gas than ever before, meaning that these resources are not being conserved.

Ojibway

Ojibway

According to the 2001 Canadian census, there are approximately 21,000 people across Canada who speak the Ojibway language. Nearly all of these live in Ontario (9,670 people) and Manitoba (8,840 people). Nationally, the Ojibway language is the third most spoken language; Cree and Inuktitut are spoken by more people.

Pathogenic Microbes

Pathogenic Microbes

Some people believe that all that is required to produce safe water is to have a chlorine residual in the water. This, unfortunately, is not correct. The presence of particles will, in fact, shield pathogenic microbes from being killed by chlorine or other disinfectants. It is, therefore, important to remember that only good quality water can be safely disinfected.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

Persistent Organic Pollutants

POPs are a group of man-made substances, most of which share characteristics like low water solubility (they do not easily dissolve in water), the ability to accumulate in fat (high lipophilicity), and resistance to biodegradation (they take a very long time to break down and stop being harmful). The name POPs refers to many pollutants such as pesticides like DDT and pollutants like PCBs. These chemicals come from pesticides, industrial chemicals, and are the unwanted by-products of industrial processes or combustion.

Pesticides and Water Pollution

Pesticides and Water Pollution

The term "pesticide" is a composite term that includes all chemicals that are used to kill or control pests. In agriculture, this includes herbicides (weeds), insecticides (insects), fungicides (fungi), nematocides (nematodes), and rodenticides (vertebrate poisons). 

Protozoan Parasites

Protozoan Parasites

A protozoan is what we call a eukaryotic organism because it is a cell that contains a true nucleus and is bounded by a nuclear membrane. It consists of only a single cell and is so small that we usually can’t see it without using a microscope. The protozoa group is very diverse and has about 50 000 members, each with its own personal characteristics - almost like how every human being is different from another.

Shigella

Shigella

Shigellosis is an acute intestinal illness caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. There are four species of ShigellaeShigella sonnei (abbreviated S. sonnei or “Type D”), S. flexneri (or “Type B”), S. boydii and S. dysenteriae.

Source Water Protection

Source Water Protection

Drinking water is best protected by taking an approach that uses multiple barriers to prevent contamination from affecting our drinking water. Known as the 'multibarrier approach', it includes taking actions to prevent contamination of sources of our water, using adequate water treatment and distribution systems, water testing and training of water managers.

TDS and pH

TDS and pH

TDS stands for total dissolved solids, and represents the total concentration of dissolved substances in water. The pH value of a water source is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity. The pH level is a measurement of the activity of the hydrogen atom, because the hydrogen activity is a good representation of the acidity or alkalinity of the water.

Treating Rural Water

Treating Rural Water

The most common water treatment tool used in homes on the rural prairie is granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. This is a treatment technique that functions by removing particles and dissolved organic material (for example: colour), and it should generate water that is better for human consumption.