Campylobacter

Campylobacter

Campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by C. jejuni. It is also referred to as Campylobacter enteritis or gastroenteritis. Most cases of C. jejuni are sporadic (appearing singly or at widely scattered places) or involve small family groups, although some common-source outbreaks involving many people have been recorded. It is believed that consuming less than 500 cells can cause illness.

Cholera

Cholera

Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was prevalent in the 1800s, but due to proper treatment of sewage and drinking water, has become rare in developed countries. V. cholerae can be found in contaminated food or water, especially in areas of poor sanitation and water treatment.

Cleaning Up After Pollution

Cleaning Up After Pollution

It is very difficult to reverse the effects of water pollution. Natural processes that cleanse the water can take years, decades, or even centuries, and even with costly technological processes, it can take years to remove all of the harmful substances from the water. 

Contaminants Regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and their Health Effects

Contaminants Regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and their Health Effects

A water contaminant is a substance which is found in water that has the potential to pose a risk to public health at certain levels. Some contaminants occur naturally in the environment and seep into water sources through erosion. Unfortunately, many of the contaminants found in water are a result of human activities. The industrial wastes from factories, refineries, mines and mills all contain harmful substances which can contaminate water sources.

Conventional Water Treatment: Coagulation and Filtration

Conventional Water Treatment: Coagulation and Filtration

Many water treatment plants use a combination of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection to provide clean, safe drinking water to the public. Worldwide, a combination of coagulation, sedimentation and filtration is the most widely applied water treatment technology, and has been used since the early 20th century.

Coxsackie B Virus

Coxsackie B Virus

The Coxsackie virus was first isolated in Coxsackie, New York in 1948. There are six
different Coxsackie B viruses, each responsible for different symptoms and diseases.
Coxsackie B viruses are responsible for numerous cases of central nervous system
infections in infants and children, as well as heart muscle infections in both children
and adults.

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidium

Cryptosporidiosis is a severe diarrheal disease caused by a microscopic parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, abbreviated C. parvum. It (C. parvum) lives in the intestinal tracts of people and a wide variety of animals, and is transmitted when people or animals ingest food or water that it has contaminated. Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite.

Disease Causing Micro-organisms

Disease Causing Micro-organisms

How many times have we been told to wash our hands before sitting down at the supper table or after touching money and other dirty surfaces? By washing up we think that we’re clean and microorganism-free. We have baths, cook our food, treat our sewage and even cover our mouths when we cough and sneeze to prevent the spread of those tiny dirty particles that could make us sick.

The Effect of Climate Change on Waterborne Diseases

The Effect of Climate Change on Waterborne Diseases

Climate change is expected to increase the severity of weather. This means that some regions will experience an increase in rainfall and flood risk, while regions that are prone to droughts may experience more extreme droughts.

Emerging Contaminants

Emerging Contaminants

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were first synthesized in 1881, and commercial production in the United States began in 1929. PCBs were used in the electrical industry, as well as surface coatings and plasticizers in sealants, caulking, rubber, paints and asphalt. By 1972, scientific evidence showed that PCBs were an environmental and human health hazard and, in 1977, the manufacturing and non-electrical use of PCBs was banned. PCBs are a chemical that gained a lot of attention when scientific evidence began to suggest that it was an extremely dangerous substance.

Escherichia Coli

Escherichia Coli

Escherichia coli, abbreviated E. coli, is a bacterium that is found in the large intestine or feces of healthy warm-blooded animals and humans. Most E. coli strains are harmless and serve a useful function in the body by stopping the growth of harmful bacteria species and by making necessary vitamins.