Copper is naturally present in the environment, but the levels of contamination can be increased around agricultural land (manure spreading), near smelting facilities, and phosphate fertilizer plants, there is also significant amounts of copper released from wastewater treatment plants. The copper piping in most buildings that we consume water from also can contribute to our intake, depending on the corrosiveness of the water.
1. Label the 5 Agar Plates: Control, and the names of the four water samples to be tested. (ie. Urban Treated, Rural Treated, Untreated Raw, Local Treated) 2. Label the 5 sterile pipettes: Control (CW), and the appropriate water sample names (ie. Urban Treated, Rural Treated, Untreated Raw, Local Treated)
The direct health implications of iron are very limited, there are however indirect problems some of which are: colour, which comes from iron in a particulate form which is too small to filter so you get “coloured water”, iron bacteria, this is when bacteria and iron form a slime which can lead to poor pipe flow, this can occur when the iron concentration exceeds 0.3 mg/L, the Canadian Drinking Water Guideline (CGLS).
Most countries, including Canada, have set an aesthetic rather than a health guideline for manganese. The reason for this is that levels above the guideline can stain porcelain and laundry, drinks such as coffee and tea can become cloudy and taste funny. High manganese levels can also cause diarrhea.
There are many negative health effects related to Nitrate, some of which include blood deficiencies, thyroid problems, decreased vitamin A, and cancer. It is, however, rare that nitrate levels are above the Canadian Water Quality Guideline for drinking water. Contaminated private wells are likely the most common place where high levels of nitrate are found.