Ammonia and Chloramine Reading Assignment

Thank you to Coleen McKellar, Biology and General Science Teacher, Crocus Plains Regional Secondary School, Brandon, Manitoba for sharing this resource she has developed.

1) Which chemical is one of the most important in the water treatment process? __________________________

2) What is the chemical formula for ammonia? __________________________________

3) Which two types of water sources commonly contain ammonia? ________________________________________________________________________

4) Give 3 ways that ammonia can be added to soil.
a. _________________________________________
b. _________________________________________
c. _________________________________________

5) Why does ammonia end up in the groundwater? ____________________________________

6) Does ammonia in the raw water result in a high or low chlorine demand? ____________

7) How much chlorine is required to react with 1 mg of ammonia? _______________________

8) Why can you not use chlorine to disinfect water that contains a large amount of ammonia? ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9) What is the process called when chlorine is continuously added to water until all of the ammonia and bacteria have been removed? ________________________________________

10) At what ammonia level is breakpoint chlorination not safe to use? __________________

11) Since the overuse of chlorine to disinfect water results in dangerous levels of chlorination byproducts, what two options are left?

12) Communities with ammonia problems have a new option for water treatment, called ____________________________________.

13) One of the stages in a biological filtration facility is to pass the water over a special filter full of ____________________________________________.

14) These bacteria take in _________________________ & ___________________________ and perform a ___________________________________________ reaction.

15) The bacteria gain _________________________ from these reactions.

16) This process is a part of the _________________________ cycle and does not produce any harmful byproducts.

17) How is the nitrate removed from the water? _____________________________________

18) The chemical formula for ammonia is _____________________________________.

19) The chemical formula NH2Cl is for ..................................

20) Chloramine is a _______________________ similar to chlorine, but is ________________ in strength. It will last longer than chlorine.

21) Chlorine will _________________________ out of the water but chloramines will not.

22) Why is this useful? _________________________________________________________

23) How do water treatment plants make chloramine? ______________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

24) What are the two tests that need to be performed to determine the amount of chloramines in drinking water? _______________________________ & ______________________________

25) What does the free chlorine test determine? ________________________________________________________________________

26) What does the total chlorine test determine? ________________________________________________________________________

27) Total chlorine concentration must always be _____________________________________ the free chlorine concentration.

28) The total chlorine test and the free chlorine test can be used together to determine the amount of _________________________ in the water.

29) Chloramine concentration is determined by __________________________ free chlorine concentration from the total chlorine concentration.

30) In an imaginary experiment:
a. Beaker one has:
i. ____________________ mls of water
ii. Free chlorine concentration of ________________________
iii. Total chlorine concentration of _______________________
iv. Ammonia concentration of __________________________
b. Beaker two has:
i. ____________________ mls of water
ii. Free chlorine concentration of ________________________
iii. Total chlorine concentration of _______________________
iv. Ammonia concentration of __________________________

31) What will happen if the content of the two beakers is mixed? ________________________________________________________________________a. What is the chloramines concentration in the two originals beakers? ________________________________________________________________________
b. Pouring the two beakers together will result in ________________mls of water.
This will _____________________________ the chemicals.
c. Does this have an affect on the concentrations of chlorine and ammonia before any chemical reaction occurs? ___________________________________
d. What should the final free chlorine and ammonia concentrations be? ________________________________________________________________________e. If all the free chlorine becomes chloramines, what should the final chloramines and total chlorine concentrations be? ________________________________________________________________________