Resources Related to Drinking Water Quality
Comparison Chart of Drinking Water Standards from around the World
Printer Friendly (Black and White) Version of the Comparison Chart of Drinking Water Standards from around the World
How to Find Drinking Water Quality Information
Click here for information on Boil Water Advisories
Helicobacter Pylori Canadian Statistics
For many years it was thought that stress or certain foods caused ulcers. It is now known that most ulcers are caused by a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) that infects the stomach. The statistics below indicate the number of people who have become ill (morbidity) and have died (mortality), in each province, due to stomach ulcers. Keep in mind that recent research suggests between 75%-90% of all stomach ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori.
*NOTE: Statistics are current as of 2002.
Prevalence of Digestive Disorders in Canada
*1994-1995 data based on per capita calculations using 1991 Canadian census
*1996-1998 data based on per capita calculations using 1996 Canadian census
*1999-2001 data based on per capita calculations using 2001 Canadian census
1. Morbidity data was collected from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (CIHI). Data includes discharges from both acute care and day surgery facilities in each province/territory. However, in some regions, case numbers for specific ulcers were less than 5. In these cases, exact numbers were not reported in order to protect privacy and graph represents a case average.
2. From 1999-2001, Alberta, Manitoba, and Quebec only reported cases discharged from day surgery facilities. Therefore, above data for these provinces do not represent total cases. In 2000 and 2001 Prince Edward Island only reported cases discharged from acute care facilities, therefore, above data for this province does not represent total cases.
3. The territory of Nunavut was not formed until 1999; therefore there is no ulcer morbidity data prior to that year.
*1997-1998 data based on per capita calculations using 1996 Canadian census
*1999-2002 data based on per capita calculations using 2001 Canadian census
NOTE: Data from 1999-2002 in Manitoba only includes mortalities due to gastric ulcers (not complete). Nunavut data does not begin until 1999, when it officially became a territory. Data missing for the following: Newfoundland (2001 and 2002); Ontario (2001 and 2002); NWT (2002); Nunavut (2000-2002); Yukon (2000-2002)
Drinking Water Quality and Health
Water Quality Fact Sheets
Water, Water, Everywhere, but is it Safe to Drink?
Fight to the Last Drop: A Glimpse into Alberta's Water Future
This is a scathing review of Alberta's water use policies and practices to date, with sobering predictions for the future. Written by Ecojustice (formerly the Sierra Legal Defense Fund) and Bow Riverkeeper.
Virtual Water Information on the World Wide Web
THE UNITED NATIONS DEFINITION
The United Nations '2003 International Year of Freshwater' website states, "The concept of virtual water emerged in the early 1990s and was first defined by Professor J.A. Allan as the water embedded in commodities. Producing goods and services requires water; the water used to produce agricultural or industrial products is called the virtual water of the product." Professor Allan was awarded the Stockholm Water Prize, http://oneworld.net/article/view/159238.
THE UN SAYS CANADA IS A MAJOR EXPORTER OF VIRTUAL WATER
According to United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Canada and the United States are the world's biggest virtual water exporters.http://www.cwn-rce.ca/index.php?fa=Media.Feature-Schreier
ANDREW NIKIFORUK (AND THE UN) SAYS CANADA EXPORTS 272.5 x 109 M3 OF VIRTUAL WATER
He writes in a Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives paper, "Canada’s trade economy is deeply dependent on the quality and quantity of its water. Almost every Canadian product exported abroad (cattle, grain, hogs, automobiles, aluminum, electricity, wood or oil) contains enormous volumes of embedded water or what economists call ‘virtual water.’ Canada now exports more virtual water than either China or India in its trade goods. (About 15% of the water used in the world is exported in virtual form, largely because of cheap oil.) In addition, two out of every three litres of the nation’s freshwater withdrawals are used for the generation of electric power, an economic venture that is already threatened by climate change. Given the current volume of Canada’s virtual water exports (272.5 x 109 m3), exports of real water can only adversely affect the economy. University of Western Ontario engineer Slobodan Simonovic has calculated that “water export” from the St. Lawrence River Basin, for example, would reduce ‘the available water for consumption by different water use sectors.’ Exporting water simply means less water at home to create jobs and less water to sustain ecological services provided by rivers and lakes necessary for life.” https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/monitor/november-2007-continental-water-follies
THE WORLD WATER COUNCIL BACKS THE VIRTUAL WATER TRADE
The World Water Council says, "Virtual water is the amount of water that is embedded in food or other products needed for its production. For example, to produce one kilogram of wheat we need about 1,000 litres of water, i.e. the virtual water of this kilogram of wheat is 1,000 litres. For meat, we need about five to ten times more....With the trade of food crops or any commodity, there is a virtual flow of water from producing and exporting countries to countries that consume and import those commodities. A water-scarce country can import products that require a lot of water for their production rather than producing them domestically. By doing so, it allows real water savings, relieving the pressure on their water resources or making water available for other purposes."
GLOBAL WATER PARTNERSHIP SUPPORTS THE VIRTUAL WATER TRADE
In the August issue of 'Scientific American' which focuses on 'facing the freshwater crisis', Peter Rogers, a senior adviser to the Global Water Partnership, writes "Keeping the demand for irrigation water in arid and semiarid areas down while still meeting the world’s future food requirements can be supported by supplying 'virtual water' to those places. The term relates to the amount of water expended in producing food or commercial goods. If such products are exported to a dry region, then that area will not have to use its own water to create them. Hence, the items represent a transfer of water to the recipient locale and supply them with so-called virtual water. The notion of virtual water may sound initially like a mere accounting device, but provision of goods—and the virtual-water content of those goods—is helping many dry countries avoid using their own water supplies for growing crops, thus freeing up large quantities for other applications. The virtual-water concept and expanded trade have also led to the resolution of many international disputes caused by water scarcity. Imports of virtual water in products by Jordan have reduced the chance of water-based conflict with its neighbor Israel, for example. The magnitude of annual global trade in virtual water exceeds 800 billion m3 of water a year; the equivalent of 10 Nile Rivers. Liberalizing trade of farm products and reducing tariff restrictions that now deter the flow of foodstuffs would significantly enhance global virtual-water flows. Truly free farm trade, for instance, would double the current annual total delivery of virtual water to more than 1.7 trillion m3."
The paper 'NAFTA and Virtual Water Trade: An estimation of virtual water trade in livestock and livestock products between Canada and the United States' by Nabeela Afrooz Rahman can be found at
Bear River Information
Bear River: Solar Aquatics
GREEN - A living machine
Solar Aquatics: Greening up sewage treatment
Regional Updates: Artificial Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment